DNS works kind of like a phone book, looking up human-readable things like website names, and converting those to IP addresses. Your devices need to know the addresses of DNS servers to which to send their queries. On a typical small or home network, the DNS server IP addresses are often the same as the default gateway address.
Devices send their DNS queries to your router, which then forwards the requests on to whatever DNS servers the router is configured to use. You also may have noticed while browsing through settings a different type of IP address, called an IPv6 address. They use the 32 binary bits we talked about in four octets to provide a total of 4. While that sounds like a lot, all the publicly available addresses were long ago assigned to businesses.
Many of them are unused, but they are assigned and unavailable for general use. Unlike the dotted decimal notation used in IPv4, IPv6 addresses are expressed as eight number groups, divided by colons.
A typical IPv6 address might look something like this:. The thing is, the shortage of IPv4 addresses that caused all the concern ended up being mitigated to a large extent by the increased use of private IP addresses behind routers. So, even though IPv6 is still a major player and that transition will still happen, it never happened as fully as predicted—at least not yet.
There are really two types of IP assignments: dynamic and static. A dynamic IP address is assigned automatically when a device connects to a network. DHCP is built into your router. When a device connects to the network, it sends out a broadcast message requesting an IP address. Which is used depends on who made your router, or how you have set things up yourself. Those private IP ranges include:. The thing about dynamic addresses is that they can sometimes change. DHCP servers lease IP addresses to devices, and when those leases are up, the devices must renew the lease.
Sometimes, devices will get a different IP address from the pool of addresses the server can assign. Occasionally, however, you might want to give a device an IP address that does not change. For example, maybe you have a device that you need to access manually, and you find it easier to remember an IP address than a name. Or maybe you have certain apps that can only connect to network devices using their IP address.
In those cases, you can assign a static IP address to those devices. There are a couple of ways to do this. The other, more elegant solution is to configure your router to assign static IP addresses to certain devices during what would normally be dynamic assignment by the DHCP server. The Best Tech Newsletter Anywhere.
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- How to Find Your Own Identity and Capitalize on it!
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According to Sidaway, while most of us are much more aware of the risks now "My mum shreds her documents even if she doesn't know why," he says , we should all be raising the bar. He thinks we Britons are an overly trusting lot. Sitting ducks for an armada of hackers, who are every bit as focused on stealing our data as we are relaxed about storing it. So what are they after, I ask? Enabled by the sharing culture on social media — and with ever more sophisticated malicious software known as malware at their disposal — cybercriminals have become far more adept at crafting attacks and targeting individuals and organisations.
A recent example of the latter was malware disguised as a security warning from Microsoft's digital crimes unit. Typically, these so-called "man-in-the-middle" attacks install colourfully named Trojans pieces of malware, essentially such as Zeus, SpyEye or Citadel on computers, which have the effect of compromising, for example, online banking transactions. Initially, man-in-the-middle attacks were passwords used in authentication — the criminal would wait until you had finished to start using the credentials they'd just gathered.
This is why banks brought in one-time passwords or codes," he says. Once the user thinks they've logged out, the attacker can make payments using the existing session without the victim seeing any changes to their balance until the next time they log on. This is partly why banks have rolled out card readers to help prevent payments to new payees. Never click on a link you did not expect to receive The golden rule. The main way criminals infect PCs with malware is by luring users to click on a link or open an attachment.
Help Locate your own Email Message in Someone Else’s Gmail
Use different passwords on different sites With individuals typically having anything up to online accounts, the tendency has become to share one or two passwords across accounts or use very simple ones, such as loved ones' names, first pets or favourite sports teams. Any word found in the dictionary is easily crackable. Instead, says Sian John, online security consultant at Symantec, have one memorable phrase or a line from a favourite song or poem.
For example: "The Observer is a Sunday newspaper" becomes "toiasn". Add numerals and a special character thus: "T0! Now for every site you log on to, add the first and last letter of that site to the start and end of the phrase, so the password for Amazon would be "AT0! At first glance, unguessable. But for you, still memorable. Never reuse your main email password A hacker who has cracked your main email password has the keys to your [virtual] kingdom. Passwords from the other sites you visit can be reset via your main email account. A criminal can trawl through your emails and find a treasure trove of personal data: from banking to passport details, including your date of birth, all of which enables ID fraud.
Use anti-virus software German security institute AV-Test found that in there were 49m new strains of malware, meaning that anti-virus software manufacturers are engaged in constant game of "whack-a-mole".
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Much like flu viruses and vaccine design, it takes the software designers a while to catch up with the hackers. Last year AV-Test published the results of a month study of 27 different anti-virus suites and top-scoring packages were Bitdefender , Kaspersky and F-Secure. If in doubt, block Just say no to social media invitations such as Facebook-friend or LinkedIn connection requests from people you don't know. It's the cyber equivalent of inviting the twitchy guy who looks at you at the bus stop into your home.
Think before you tweet and how you share information Again, the principal risk is ID fraud. Trawling for personal details is the modern day equivalent of "dumpster-diving", in which strong-stomached thieves would trawl through bins searching for personal documents, says Symantec's John. Once that information is out there, you don't necessarily have control of how other people use it. If you have a "wipe your phone" feature, you should set it up Features such as Find My iPhone, Android Lost or BlackBerry Protect allow you to remotely to erase all your personal data, should your device be lost or stolen.
Even if you didn't have the foresight to sign up, many wipe your phone features can be implemented after the fact.
How to Find your Email Message in Someone's Gmail with Message ID
Only shop online on secure sites Before entering your card details, always ensure that the locked padlock or unbroken key symbol is showing in your browser, cautions industry advisory body Financial Fraud Action UK. Additionally the beginning of the online retailer's internet address will change from "http" to "https" to indicate a connection is secure. Be wary of sites that change back to http once you've logged on.
Banks must refund a customer if he or she has been the victim of fraud, unless they can prove that the customer has acted "fraudulently" or been "grossly negligent". Yet as with any case of fraud, the matter is always determined on an individual basis. Under payment services regulations, the onus is on the payment-service provider to prove that the customer was negligent, not vice versa.
Credit card protection is provided under the Consumer Credit Act and offers similar protection. Ignore pop-ups Pop-ups can contain malicious software which can trick a user into verifying something. Always ignore pop-ups offering things like site surveys on e-commerce sites, as they are sometimes where the malcode is. Be wary of public Wi-Fi Most Wi-Fi hotspots do not encrypt information and once a piece of data leaves your device headed for a web destination, it is "in the clear" as it transfers through the air on the wireless network, says Symantec's Sian John.
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